中华文明 Chinese civilization 文明摇篮 cradle of civilization 华夏祖先 the Chinese ancestors 秦始皇帝 First Emperor,Emperor Chin 皇太后 Empress Dowager 汉高祖刘邦 founder of the Han Dynasty(206BC-220AD) 成吉思汗 Genghis Khan;Temujin 夏朝 the Xia Dynasty 明清两代 the Ming and Qing Dynasties 地名:特别注意四川和陕西拼法 四川 Sichuan,Szechwan,Szechuan 陕西 Shaanxi 四大发明 the four great inventions of ancient China 火药 gunpowder 印刷术 printing 造纸术 paper-making 指南针 the compass 汉字 Chinese character 单音节 single syllable 汉语四声调 the four tones of Chinese characters 阳平 level tone 阴平 rising tone 上声 falling-rising tone 去声 falling tone 四书 the Four Books 《大学》 The Great Learning 《中庸》 The Doctrine of the Mean 《论语》 The Analects of Confucius 《孟子》 The Mencius 《春秋》 the Spring and Autumn Annals 《史记》 Historical Records 《诗经》 The Book of Songs;The Book of Odes 《书经》/《尚书》 The Book of History 《易经》 I Ching;The Book of Changes 《礼记》 The Book of Rites 《孝经》 Book of Filial Piety 《孙子兵法》 The Art of War 《三字经》 The Three-Character Scripture;The Three-Word Chant 《三国演义》 Three Kingdoms 《西游记》 Journey to the West;Pilgrimage to the West 《红楼梦》 Dream of the Red Mansions 《山海经》 The Classic of Mountains and Rivers 《资治通鉴》 History as a Mirror;Comprehensive History Retold as a Mirror for Rulers 《西厢记》 The Romance of West Chamber 《水浒传》 Heroes of the Marshes;Tales of the Water Margin 《聊斋志异》 Strange Tales of a Lonely Studio;Strange Tales from Make-Do Studio 《围城》 Fortress Besieged 《阿Q正传》 The True Story of Ah Q 五言绝句 five-character quatrain 七言律诗 seven-character octave 八股文 eight-part essay;stereotyped writing 重要文化遗产 major cultural heritage 优秀民间艺术 outstanding folk arts 文物 cultural relics 中国画 traditional Chinese painting 书法 calligraphy 水墨画 Chinese brush painting;ink and wash painting 工笔 traditional Chinese realistic painting 中国结 Chinese knot 旗袍 Cheongsam 中山装 Chinese tunic suit 唐装 traditional Chinese garments(clothing);Tang suit 朝廷使者 royal court envoy 文人 men of letters 雅士 refined scholars 表演艺术 performing art 流行艺术 popular art;pop art 纯艺术 high art 高雅艺术 refined art 电影艺术 cinematographic art 踩高跷 stilt walk 哑剧 pantomime;mime 哑剧演员 pantomimist 戏剧小品 skit 马戏 circus show 单口相声 monologue comic talk;standup comedy 特技表演 stunt 相声 witty dialogue comedy;comic crosstalk 杂技 acrobatics 京韵大鼓 the traditional story-telling in Beijing dialect with drum accompaniment 戏剧艺术 theatrical art 才子佳人 gifted scholars and beautiful ladies 生(男性正面角色)male(the positive male role) 旦(女性正面角色)female(the positivefemale role) 净(性格鲜明的男性配角)a supportingmale role with striking character 丑(幽默滑稽或反面角色)a clown or anegative role 花脸 painted role 歌舞喜剧 musical 滑稽场面,搞笑噱头 shtick 滑稽短剧 skit 京剧人物脸谱 Peking Opera Mask 皮影戏 shadow play;leather-silhouetteshow 说书 story-telling 叠罗汉 make a human pyramid 折子戏 opera highlights 秦腔 Shaanxi opera 武术 martial art 功夫 kung fu 武术门派 styles or schools of martial art 习武健身 practice martial art for fitness 气功 qigong;deep breathing exercises 拳击 boxing 篆刻 seal cutting upriteous 工艺,手艺 workmanship;craftsmanship 卷轴 scroll 蜡染 batik 泥人 clay figure 漆画 lacquer painting 唐三彩 trio-colored glazed pottery ofthe tang Dynasty 景泰蓝 cloisonné 文房四宝 the four stationery treasuresof the Chinese study—a writingbrush,an ink stick,an ink stone andpaper 民间传说 folklores 寓言 fable 传说 legend 神话 mythology 古为今用,洋为中用 make the past servethe present and the foreign serve China 赋诗 inscribe a poem 对对联 matching an antithetical couplet 阳历 solar calendar 公历 Gregorian calendar 阴历 lunar calendar 天干 heavenly stem 地支 earthly branch 闰年 leap year 二十四节气 the twenty-four solar terms 十二生肖 the twelve Chinese zodiac signs 本命年 one's year of birth considered in relation to the 12 Terrestrial Branches 传统节日 traditional holidays 春节 the Spring Festival 元宵节 the Lantern Festival(15th day of the first lunar month) 清明节 the Tomb-sweeping Day(April the 5th) 端午节 the Dragon Boat Festival(5th of the fifth lunar month) 中秋节 the Mid-Autumn Day(15th of the eight lunar month) 重阳节 the Double Ninth Day;the AgedDay 古文明研究中心 Research Center for Ancient Civilizations 中外学者 Chinese and overseas scholars 考古学家 archaeologists 人类学家 anthropologist 历史学家 historian 地理学家 geographer


不景气 slump
牛市 bull market
第一产业(农业)agriculture(primary industry)
第二产业(工业)manufacturing industry(secondary industry)
第三产业(服务业)service industry(tertiary industry)
主要经济指标 major economic indicators
国内生产总值 GDP gross domestic product(商品和劳务币值总和,不包括海外收入支出)
国民生产总值 GNP gross national product(商品和劳务币值总和,包括海外收入支出)
人均国内生产总值 GDP per capita
宏观经济 macro economy
扩大内需 expand domestic demand
改善居民心理预期 inspire the general public’s confidence in the future needs
长期国债 long-term treasury bonds
支付国债利息 to service treasury bonds
财政赤字和债务 deficits and the national debt
按不变价格计算 calculate at constant price
按可比价格计算 calculate at comparable price
开办人民币业务 engage in Renminbi(RMB)business
分期付款 pay by installment
抵押贷款 collateralised loans
住房抵押贷款 residential mortgage loan
计划经济 planned economy
指令性计划 mandatory plan
技术密集型 technology intensive
大规模生产 mass production
经济林 cash tree
配套政策 supporting policies
中国人民银行(中央银行)The People’s Bank of China(central bank)
四大国有商业银行 4 major state-owned commercial banks
中国银行 Bank of China
中国工商银行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China
中国建设银行 Construction Bank of China
中国农业银行 Agricultural Bank of China
招商银行 China Merchants Bank
疲软股票 soft stock
实际增长率 growth rate in real terms
年均增长率 average growth rate per annum
投资回报率 rate of return on investment
外贸进出口总额 total foreign trade value
实际利用外资 incoming overseas capital(investment)in place
消费价格指数 consumer price index(CPI)
零售价格指数 retail price index(RPI)
生活费用 income available for living expenses
扣除物价因素 in real terms;on inflation-adjusted basis
居民储蓄存款 residents’ bank savings deposit
片面追求发展速度 excessive pursuit of growth
泡沫经济 bubble economy
经济过热 overheating of economy
通货膨胀 inflation
实体经济 the real economy
经济规律 laws of economics
市场调节 market regulation
优化资源配置 optimize allocation of resources
规模经营优势 advantage of economies of scale
劳动密集型 labor intensive
市场风险 market risk
收紧银根 tighten up monetary policy
适度从紧的财政政策 moderately tight fiscal policy
信用紧缩 credit crunch
启动民间投资 attract investment from the private sector
适销对路的产品 the right products; readily marketable products
国有企业 state-owned enterprises(SOEs)
集体企业 collectively-owned(partnership)enterprises
私营企业 private businesses
民营企业 privately-run businesses
中小企业 small-and-medium-sized enterprises
三资企业(中外合资、中外合作、外商独资)overseas-invested enterprises;foreign-invested enterprises(Chinese-overseas equity joint ventures,Chinese-overseas contractual joint ventures,wholly foreign-owned enterprises)
存款保证金 guaranty money for deposits
货币回笼 withdrawal of currency from circulation
支持国有大型企业和高新技术企业上市融资 support large state-owned enterprises and high and innovative technology companies in their efforts to seek financing by listing on the stock market
改制上市 An enterprise is re-organized according to modern corporate system so that it will get listed on the stock market.
进一步规范和发展证券市场 further standardize and develop the securities market
完善股票发行上市制度 improve the system for IPO and listing on stock markets
中国证监会 China Securities RegulatoryCommission(CSRC)
深圳证券交易所 Shenzhen Stock Exchange
上海证券交易所 Shanghai Stock Exchange
综合指数 composite index
纳斯达克(高技术企业板)NASDAQ(National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation)
主板市场 the main board
通货紧缩 deflation
中国现代化建设分三步走的战略the three-step development strategy of China’s modernization drive
第一步,到1990年国民生产总值比1980年翻一番 Step One:GNP of 1990 doubles that of 1980.
第二步,到2000年人均国民生产总值比1980年翻两番,人民生活达到小康水平 Step Two:GNP of 2000 quadruples that of 1980;people live a fairly comfortable life.
第三步,到21世纪中期建国100周年时,达到中等发达国家水平 Step Three:By the year 2049,the 100th anniversary of the P.R.C.,China’s level of development is expected to be on a par with the mid-ranking developed countries.
与世界经济的联系将更加紧密 be moreclosely linked to the world economy
中国巨大的市场潜力将逐步转化为现实的购买力 The huge market potential that China enjoys will be turned into tangible purchasing power.
法律法规体系还不够健全 The regulatory and legal system is not well established.
经济管理体制 the economic management system
立足中国国情 proceed from national conditions in China
发挥自身优势 bring our advantages into play
扬长避短,趋利避害 foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses
迎接经济全球化的挑战 rise to the challenge of economic globalization
瓶颈制约 bottleneck constraints
深化改革 intensify reform;deepen one’s commitment to reform
配套改革 supporting(concomitant)reforms
配套资金 counterpart funds;local funding
提高经济效益 improve economic performance;increase economic returns
讲求社会效益 value contribution to society;pay attention to social effect
加速国民经济信息化 develop information-based economy;accelerate IT application in economy
拉动经济增长 fuel economic growth
朝阳产业 sunrise industry
招标投标制 the system of public biddingfor project
充分发挥货币政策的作用 give full play to the role of monetary policy
实施积极的财政政策 follow a pro-active fiscal policy
向银行增发国债,扩大投资 The government issued additionaltreasury bonds to banks to increase investment.
信息经济 IT economy
外向型经济 export-oriented economy
信息时代 information age
全球化 globalization(全球性 globality)
信誉风险 reputational risk
资不抵债 insolvency;be insolvent
亚洲金融危机 Asian financial crisis(1997-98)
投资(贷款)组合 investment(loan)portfolio
外汇储备充足 sufficient foreign exchange reserves
中国金融业问题 problems with financial sector in China
储蓄比例过高 the excessively large proportion of savings in the moneysupply
国有企业产负债率过高 high leverageratio of the state-owned enterprises
不良贷款 non-performing loans
防范和化解金融风险 prevent and address financial risks
金融资产管理公司 financial asset management companies
分离和收回不良资产 substantially reduce the ratio of non-performing assets
分业管理,规模经营 business segregation,economy of scale
国家发展银行 State Development Bank
知识经济 knowledge-based economy
网络经济 Internet-based(networked)economy
指导性计划 guidance plan
社会主义市场经济(中国)socialist market economy
社会市场经济(德国)social market economy
新经济(美国)new economy
金融监管 financial supervision
中国人民银行法 Law of the People’s Bank of China
商业银行法 Law of Commercial Banks
保险法 Law of Insurance
证券法 Law of Securities
风险意识 consciousness of risk prevention
自动存取机 a banding machine
存款 to deposit
私人存款 private deposits
信用卡 credit card
透支 overdraft;overdraw
兑现 to cash
支票 check
银行家 banker
行长 president(of a bank)
储蓄银行 savings bank
中央银行 central bank;national bank;banker’s bank
商业银行 commercial bank
储蓄信贷银行 member bank;credit bank
国内银行 domestic bank
国外银行 overseas bank
钱庄 unincorporated bank
银行分行 branch bank
信托公司 trust company
金融信托公司 financial trust
信托投资公司 unit trust
商业信贷公司(贴现公司)commercial credit company(discount company)
街道储蓄所 neighborhood savings bank;bank of deposit
土地银行 land bank
建设银行 construction bank
工商银行 industrial and commercial bank
交通银行 bank of communications
邮局储蓄银行 post office savings bank
抵押银行 mortgage bank
实业银行 industrial bank
投资银行 investment bank
进出口银行 import and export bank(EXIMBANK)
合资银行 joint venture bank
信用社 credit cooperatives
坏账 bad debts
投资 investment
结余 surplus
游资 idle capital
经济周期 economic cycle
经济繁荣 economic boom
经济衰退 economic recession
经济萧条 economic depression
经济危机 economic crisis
经济复苏 economic recovery
通货收缩 deflation
货币贬值 devaluation
货币增值 revaluation
国际收支 international balance of payment
顺差 favorable balance
逆差 adverse balance
硬通货 hard currency
软通货 soft currency
国际货币制度 international monetary system
货币购买力 the purchasing power of money
货币流通量 money in circulation
纸币发行量 note issue
国家预算 national budget
公债 public bond
股票 stock,share
债券 debenture
国库券 treasury bill
债务链 debt chain
外汇储备 foreign currency(exchange)reserve
外汇波动 foreign exchange fluctuation
外汇危机 foreign exchange crisis
黄金储备 gold reserve
金融市场 money(financial)market
股票交易所 stock exchange
经纪人 broker
股票,股权 share;equity;stock
可流通股份 negotiable share
国库券,政府债券 treasury;government bond
市值 market capitalization
机构投资者 institutional investor
证券 securities
资本市场 capital market
流通性 liquidity
路演 road show
评级机构 rating agency
信用交易 credit trading
债券 bond;debenture;debts
企业债券 corporate bond
红利,股息 dividend
个人投资者,散户 retail / private investor
券商 broker,dealer
内幕交易 insider trading/dealing
筹资 raised capital/proceeds
融资 financing


安居工程 housing project for low-income families 安居小区 a neighborhood for low-income families 保障妇女就业权利 to guarantee women's right to employment 城镇居民最低生活保障 guarantee of subsistence allowances for urban residents 在城镇强制推行以养老、失业、医疗为重点的社会保险 Social welfare insurance,particularly old-age,unemployment and medical insurance,must be made mandatory n urban areas. 城镇社会保障体系 the social security system in urban areas 城镇职工基本医疗保险制度 the basic medical insurance system for urban employees 创新精神 be innovation-minded;to havea creative mind 促进学生德、智、体、美全面发展 ensure that students improve in terms of their moral,intellectualand fitness level as well as in their appreciation of aesthetics 大家庭 extended family 大力推行个人助学信贷 Personal loans to finance education should be vigorously promoted. 大专文凭 associate degree(conferred to junior college students) 待业人员 job seekers 待遇优厚的工作 a well-paid job 单亲家庭 single parent family 定向培训 training for specific posts 独生子女 the only child 对保障方案进行精算评估 Security programs should undergo actuarial review. 对口扶贫 provide poverty alleviation aidto the designated sister regions 恶性犯罪 major crimes 反对迷信 be against superstition 福利分房 buy a benefit-oriented apartment from the organization oneworks with 复式住宅 compound apartment 干部年轻化 rejuvenation of cadres 岗位培训 on-job training 高度重视精神文明建设 pay close attention to cultural and ethical progress 搞好优生优育 promote good prenatal and postnatal care 个人自愿计划 voluntary private plans 工伤保险制度 the on-job injury insurance system 工资收入分配制度 the wage and income distribution system 关系国计民生的大事 matters vital to national well-being and the people's livelihood 关心和支持残疾人事业 Programs to help the physically and mentally challenged deserve our care and support. 关心老龄人 care for senior citizens 贵族学校 exclusive school(美);select school(英) 国企下岗职工基本生活保障 guarantee of basic cost of living allowances for workers laid off from state-owned enterprises 过紧日子 tighten one's belt 过温饱生活 live a life at a subsistentlevel 合理调整就业结构 to rationally readjustthe employment structure 后勤服务社会化 make logistic services independent in their operation 积极发展民办教育 Efforts should be made to develop schools not operated by government education epartments. 基本养老金 basic pensions 计划生育责任制 responsibility systemof family planning 继续开展“扫黄打非”斗争 The fight against pornography,illegal publications and piracy shall be continued. 加快住房分配货币化进程 capitalizationprocess of housing distribution/allocation 加强计划生育工作 further improve family planning 加强舆论监督 ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion 家庭美德 family virtues 坚持“两手抓、两手都要硬”的方针adhere to the principle of“doing two jobs at once and attaching equalimportance to each” 坚持正确的舆论导向 maintain the correct orientation for public opinion 建立集体合同制度 to establish a groupcontract system 建立市场导向的就业机制 to establish amarket-oriented employment mechanism 建立新型的劳动关系 to establish a new type of labor relations 建设廉洁、勤政、务实、高效政府 builda clean and diligent,pragmatic and efficient government 建设一个富强、民主、文明的国家 build a prosperous,strong,democratic and culturally advanced country 教育程度 educational status;education received 教育程度比率 educational attainment ratio 戒毒所 drug rehabilitation center 扩大就业和再就业 to expand employment and reemployment 劳动保障监察制度 the labor security supervision system 劳动标准体系 labor standard system 劳动争议处理体制 the system of handling labor disputes 面临困境 face adverse conditions 培养创新精神和实践能力 develop practical abilities and a spirit of innovation 破案率 rate of solved criminal cases 强制性普及方案 universally compulsoryprogram 切实减轻中小学生过重的课业负担 effectively reduce too heavy homework assignments for primary and secondary school students 确保国有企业下岗职工基本生活费和 离退休人员基本养老金按时足额发放 to ensure that subsistence allowances for laid-off workers from state-owned enterprises and basic pensions for etirees are paid on time and in full 人口出生率 birth rate 人口老龄化 aging of population 人口增长的高峰期 baby boom 人口增长与社会经济发展相协调 keep population growth in line with social and economic development 人民生活水平 quality of life;the livingstandards 认真贯彻实施中国妇女、儿童发展纲 要 The programs for the development of work concerning women and children should be earnestly implemented. 弱势群体 disadvantaged groups 扫除青壮年文盲 eliminate illiteracy among young and middle-aged people 伤残保险 disability insurance 社会保障 social security 社会保障“三条保障线”制度 social security system of“three guarantees” 社会福利制度 the social welfare system 社会公德 social morality 社会互助制度 the social mutual help system 社会治安状况好转 see an improved law-and-order situation our peoplea relatively comfortable life 实行弹性大、灵活性强、多样化的就业形式 to adopt elastic,flexible,diversified forms of employment 实行劳动合同制度 to institute a labor contract system 深入扎实地开展群众性精神文明创建 活动 Extensive public participation activities are launched to promote cultural and ethical progress. 生活待遇 material amenities 生活费收入 income available for cost of living 生活费用 cost of living;income maintenance;subsistence cost 生育保险制度 the childbirth insurancesystem 失学儿童 dropouts 失业保险 unemployment insurance 失业保险制度 the unemployment insurance system 失业率 rate of unemployment 实施积极促进就业的政策 to implementthe policy of vigorously increasing employment 实现基本普及九年义务教育 The goal in the effort to make nine-year compulsory education basically universal has been attained. 实现小康目标 attain the goal of ensuring 树立正确的价值观、世界观、人生观 help foster the morally sound values and outlook on the world and life 思想道德建设(思想政治工作)moral education among people 提高劳动者素质 to enhance workers' quality 统筹兼顾城乡就业 to make overall plans for urban and rural employment 推动就业服务向社区延伸,形成多层 次的就业服务网络 to encourage the formation of community-run agencies as a part of the multi-level employment service network 推进素质教育 push ahead with education for all-around development 推行职业资格证书制度 to introduce a vocational qualification credentials system 退休基金 pension fund 脱贫 lift off poverty;cast off poverty 完善和落实再就业优惠政策 to improveand implement preferential reemployment 完善失业保险制度 to improve the unemployment insurance system 文明城市 model city;culturally advanced city;city cited for high moral and cultural standards 物业管理 estate management;property management 消费价格总水平 the general price level 小家庭 nuclear family 小康生活 enjoy a fairly comfortable life;be moderately better off 新生儿死亡率 infant mortality rate;neonatal mortality rate 行行出状元 Every profession produces its own leading authority. 研究生毕业证/学位证 graduate diploma;graduate degree's diploma 养老保险 retirement insurance 养老保险制度 the old-age insurance system 医疗保险 medical insurance 应试教育体制 examination-oriented education system 优抚安置制度 the special care and placement system 优化就业结构 to optimize employment structure 有公德心 be civic-minded 舆论导向 direction of public opinion 舆论监督 supervision by public opinion 预期寿命 life expectancy 自然灾害救助制度 the natural disaster relief system 在职博士生 on-job doctorate 招生就业指导 enrolment and vocation guidance 争取实现高等教育大众化 work to make regular higher education accessible to the majority of young people 政府主导计划 government-sponsored programs 职业道德 ethics of profession 中华人民共和国劳动法 the Labor Law of the People's Republic of China 中专生 secondary specialized or technical school student 重视发展具有比较优势和市场潜力的劳动密集型企业 to stress the development of labor-intensive enterprises with comparative advantages and market potential 抓好农村和流动人口计划生育管理与服务 devote efforts to the management of family planning and related services in rural areas and among the floating population 自然增长率 natural growth rate 自学成才 self-taught and self-made person;become a qualified professional through self-taught way 最低生活保障制度 the minimum living standard security system




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